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Geochemie & Lagerstättenkunde

AGW-KIT
Prof. Dr. Jochen Kolb

Die Lagerstättenkunde war in Deutschland traditionell der Geochemie angegliedert, da Lagerstätten als geochemische Anomalien der Erdkruste angesehen werden. Deutschland hat eine große und lange Bergbautradition mit begleitender Forschung in der Lagerstättenkunde. Heute ist Deutschland immer noch ein weltweit wichtiges Rohstoffland für Braunkohle, Kali- und Steinsalz. Für unsere Industrie, die Infrastruktur und unseren Alltag brauchen und verbrauchen wir täglich große Rohstoffmengen.
Die Lagerstättenkunde steht jetzt und in der Zukunft großen Herausforderungen gegenüber, in denen nicht nur die umfassenden geologischen Prozesse der Lagerstättenbildung sondern auch die Umweltrelevanz sowie die wirtschaftlich soziale Bedeutung im Sinne der ökonomischen Geologie (Economic Geology) erforscht werden müssen. Somit umfasst die Lagerstättenkunde neben einem weiten Spektrum der Geowissenschaften auch Aspekte der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften.

In der Abteilung für Geochemie und Lagerstättenkunde versuchen wir, beide Bereiche umfassend in der Lehre und Forschung zu vertreten. Unser geochemisches Labor ist nach neuesten Standards ausgestattet und wir haben Zugriff auf weitere Labore im KIT und über ein internationales Netzwerk.

Im Bereich Lagerstättenkunde konzentrieren wir uns vorerst auf die Erforschung sogenannter orogener Goldlagerstätten. Diese gehören aus ökonomischer Sicht zu den wichtigsten Lagerstättentypen weltweit, da sie rund 50% aller aktiven Goldbergwerke ausmachen und die Hälfte aller Investitionen in Lagerstättenexploration in die Erkundung von Goldvorkommen fließt.


Forschung

Projekte

Lagerstättenkunde (Prof. Dr. Jochen Kolb)

 

Mercury contaminated sites in Cedral S.L.P. Mexico, Contamination, Stock, Renovation (QUAKBES)

Mercury (Hg) has been extensively used in Mexico since the 16th century for Au and Ag extraction...

Metal extraction form geothermal fluids in the Upper Rhine Graben, a new mineral source?

Our societies are going through major energy and technology shifts which deeply change our needs in raw materials...

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The source of metals in the recent polymetallic sea-floor massive sulfide mineralization at the Kolumbo arc-volcano, Greece
Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits form on the seafloor from mixing of high temperature hydrothermal fluids with seawater...
Gold-rich mineralisation in Izu Bonin fore-arc at ODP site 786B: evaluation of magmatic input into oceanic crust hydrothermal system
Gold and other metals variably enriched in volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are mobilised...

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Aktuelle Projekte
Titel Ansprechpartner


Forschung
Titel


Publikationen
Autor Titel Quelle

Walter, B. F., Scharrer, M., Burisch, M., Apukthina, O., & Markl, G.

Chemical Geology, 119358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2019.119358 (2019)

Müller, M., Igbokwe, O. A., Walter, B., Pederson, C. L., Riechelmann, S., Richter, D. K., Albert R., Gerdes, A., Buhl, D., Neuser, R., & Bertotti, G.

Sedimentology. doi: 10.1111/sed.12664 (2019)

Dziggel, A., Diener, J.F.A., Kokfelt, T.F., Kolb, J., Scherstén, A.

Precambrian Research 335, Article 105499, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105499, (2019)

Giebel, R. J., Parsapoor, A., Walter, B. F., Braunger, S., Marks, M. A. W., & Wenzel, T.

Journal of Petrology. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egz028 (2019)

Walter, B.F., Kortenbruck, P., Scharrer, M., Zeitvogel, C. Wälle, M., Mertz-Kraus, R. and Markl, G.

Chemical Geology 506, 126-148 (2019)

Banks, G.J., Walter, B.F., Marks, M.A.W. & Siegfried, P.R.

Minerals 9(2), 97 (2019)

Dill, H.G., Kolb, J.

Ore Geology Reviews, 104, 46-71 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2018.10.011 (2019)

Müller, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S.

Lithos 296-299, 212-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2017.11.008 (2018)

Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S.

Mineralium Deposita. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-018-0821-5 (2018)

Bell, R.-B., Kolb, J., Waight T.E.

In: Gessner, K., Blenkinsop, T.G., Sorjonen-Ward, P. (eds): Characterization of Ore-Forming Systems from Geological, Geochemical and Geophysical Studies. Geological Society Special Publications 453, London, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP453.2 (2017)

Dziggel, A., Kokfelt, T.F., Kolb, J., Kisters, A.F.M., Reifenröther, R.

Precambrian Research 300, 223-245, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2017.07.027 (2017)

Kolb, J.

Journal of Structural Geology 99, iii; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(17)30102-5 (2017)

Kolb, J., Thébaud, N., Lebrun, E., Fiorentini, M., Nielsen, T.

Proceedings of the 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, 20-23 August 2017, Québec City, Canada, 51-54 (2017)

Rosa, D., DeWolfe, M., Guarnieri, P., Kolb, J., LaFlamme, C., Partin, C., Salehi, S., Sørensen, E.V., Thaarup, S., Thrane, K., Zimmermann, R.

Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Report 2017/5, Copenhagen, pp 112 (2017)

Rosing-Schow, N., Bagas, L., Kolb, J., Balić-Žunić, T., Korte, Ch., Fiorentini, M.L.

Mineralium Deposita 52, 769-789, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-016-0701-9 (2017)



Master / Project study opportunities in ore geology

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1] Orogenic gold deposits in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt: Characterization of mineralizing processes leading to the formation of typical and atypical orogenic deposits

Orogenic Au deposits are the product of complex large scale processes which include the production of metal-rich fluids, the transport of these metal-rich fluids through the Earth’s crust, and the precipitation of the metals in structurally controlled locations at various degree of metamorphism. The Paleoproterozoic Central Lapland Greenstone Belt (CLGB) hosts numerous orogenic Au deposits. These deposits, however, show various metal endowment from Au-only to Au-Cu-Co-U and this variability is not well constrained. The aim of the project is to investigate various deposits and characterise their paragenetic sequence in order to better understand the metal endowment variability in orogenic Au deposits from the CLGB. The project involves field work in Finland.

2] Gold and related element fluxes in subduction zone: Insight from the Central Cyclades, Greece

Fluid fluxes in subduction zones enable efficient transfer of mobile elements from pelagic sediments and altered oceanic crust to the overlying mantle. These fluxes affect the mantle composition and its redox state having a profound impact on supra-subduction arc systems and their associated hydrothermal ore deposits such as porphyry, skarn, epithermal and VMS deposits which are often enriched in Au. The aim of this project is to investigate the mobility of Au and other elements during subduction by investigating exhumed subducted rocks from the Cycaldes Island, Greece.

3] Copper mineralization in the Donnersberg rhyolitic dome, Pfalz: Characterization of mineralizing processes associated with felsic volcanism

The Donnersberg rhyolitic dome, Pfalz, hosts in its Southwestern part Cu mineralization which has been mined since the antiquity. The mineralization, however, have been poorly investigated and there is no current model for their formation. The aim of this project is to better characterize the mineralization in order to provide an accurate genetic model and a proper classification. Mapping, petrographical characterization and geochemical analyzes will be carried out. The project involves field work in the surroundings of Imsbach, Pfalz.

4] Metal behavior during the magmatic differentiation of the Semail ophiolite, Oman

Supra-subduction zone settings are fertile environments where numerous hydrothermal ore deposits form. This high metal fertility is partly inherited from the specific behavior of metals during magmatic differentiation. The Semail ophiolite, Oman, hosts numerous volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and shows evidence for supra-subduction magmatic differentiation. The aim of this project is to characterize metal behavior during the magmatic differentiation of the Semail ophiolite so to better constrain metal fluxes in supra-subduction environments and the possible implication for VMS deposit formation.

5] Metal behavior during metamorphism and the formation of quartz-carbonate veins,
Rinkian Orogen, central West Greenland

Orogenic gold deposits are characterized by shear zone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein systems in orogens. The Paleoproterozoic Rinkian Orogen hosts quartz-carbonate veins in meta-sedimentary schist. Although, they formed in a characteristic setting for orogenic gold deposits and there is hydrothermal alteration associated with the veins, gold contents are low. The aim of this project is to characterize the hydrothermal alteration associated with the veins geochemically and petrologically and to compare the data with typical orogenic gold deposits in order to better understand the hydrothermal processes. The project involves application of petrological and geochemical methods.

6] Hydrothermal quartz vein formation in Archean rocks of central West Greenland

A small Archean greenstone belt in central West Greenland hosts hydrothermal mineralization in a quartz vein and a strongly silicified zone. The style of mineralization is unclear and gold analysis has not been done. The aim of this project is to characterize the hydrothermal mineralization by petrological and geochemical approaches. It is possible that the mineralized and altered zone represents an Archean orogenic gold deposit.

7] Hydrothermal alteration of paragneiss in the high-grade metamorphic terrane of
the northern Rinkian Orogen, central West Greenland

The northern part of the Rinkian Orogen is characterized by gneiss and migmatite. Presumably meta-sedimentary gneisses show interesting different grey and rusty weathering colours, although they macroscopically have the same mineral composition. The rusty weathering of the paragneiss has confused geologists in surficial mineral exploration for some time. The aim of this project is to characterize the samples using geochemistry and petrology in order to determine how the different weathering colouration is controlled and whether the rusty colour is caused by weathering of hydrothermal alteration. A better understanding of the processes behind the colour variation may aid in regional mineral exploration.

8] Styles of hydrothermal massive sulfide mineralization in rocks of the Paleoproterozoic
Karrat Group, Rinkian Orogen, central West Greenland

The Paleoproterozoic Karrat Group consists of metamorphosed sedimentary, volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks. These rocks are known to host massive sulfide occurrences in many places. The Black Angel Zn-Pb-Ag deposit is only one example. Massive sulfide assemblages are deformed and metamorphosed, which makes it difficult to unravel the mineralization processes. Various models (SHMS, VHMS, SEDEX, MVT) have been proposed to explain the genesis of the ores. One detailed cross section was sampled, where massive sulfide is hosted in (likely) meta-sedimentary rock, and samples from other locations are available for comparison. The aim of this study is to characterize and compare hydrothermal alteration and ore assemblages and to unravel the evolution of the mineralized rocks.

9] Mineralization processes and subsequent deformation of sphalerite-galena ore from
near the Black Angel Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Rinkian Orogen, central West Greenland

The Black Angel Zn-Pb-Ag deposit has been successfully mined for a couple of years. Interest in regional mineral exploration is still high. Massive sulfide hosted in mylonitic marble outcrops close to the mine and was sampled there. Recent investigations on samples from Black Angel indicate that the mineralization may be of syn-tectonic origin and may be similar to styles of mineralization in the Zambian Copper Belt. The aim of this project is to characterize deformation in the samples and relate structures to mineral paragenesis. This data should be compared to petrologic data from disseminated sulfide ore in marble and massive sulfide ore in black shale. The main question is, whether hydrothermal mineralization was pre-tectonic and the ore was subsequently deformed or whether hydrothermal mineralization is syn-tectonic.